Food Security Framework | Key Population Groups
Over the past 10 years, most food insecure populations in Sudan have been concentrated in the agro-pastoral and pastoral livelihood zones of the west (Darfur and Kordofan states) and east (Kassala and Gedaref states). There is also growing concern about the high prevalence of food insecurity in the urban areas of Sudan. Since 2003, the conflict in Darfur region has displaced over 2 million people who to a greater extent have been relying on humanitarian assistance. The main livelihood zones of Sudan can be broadly defined as follows:
- Agro-pastoral livelihood: This group represents most rural areas of Sudan, mainly the western region (Darfur, Kordofan), and some areas in the east, north and central states. Agriculture (rainfed and irrigated) and livestock herding are the main livelihood strategies along with the collection of firewood/grass, seasonal labour, remittances from within Sudan and abroad, and petty trade.
- Pastoral livelihoods: This group represents traditional pastoral and nomadic areas mainly in the western, eastern, central, and some northern states.
- Urban livelihood: This group represents most of the main towns of Sudan.
During the last five years (2004 -2010), around 20 percent of the population in Sudan is food insecure annually. In 2010, an estimated 5.5 million people are food insecure, with moderate to high levels of food insecurity. The majority of this population is concentrated in Darfur due to insecurity and the drought that affected crop production during the 2009/10 agricultural season. Of the four million food insecure people in Darfur, about half are directly affected by conflict, and half are affected by drought. Food insecurity in other parts of Sudan is mainly due to environmental degradation, declining patterns of rainfall and the growing poverty among low-income groups in urban areas.