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País com presença
Descrição das formas de vida

Mali Livelihood Zone Descriptions

Agosto 2015

CIF 2.0 Fase de Insegurança Alimentar Aguda Baseado

1: Minima
2: Stress
3: Crise
4: Emergência
5: Fome
Poderia ser pior sem a assistência humanitária em vigor ou programad
A maneira de classificação que utiliza FEWS NET é compatível com a CIF. A análise compatível com a CIF segue os protocolos fundamentais da CIF mas não necessariamente reflete o consenso dos parceirosnacionais com respeito a segurança alimentar.

CIF 2.0 Fase de Insegurança Alimentar Aguda Baseado

1: Minima
2: Stress
3+: Crise ou pior
Poderia ser pior sem a assistência
humanitária em vigor ou programad
A maneira de classificação que utiliza FEWS NET é compatível com a CIF. A análise compatível com a CIF segue os protocolos fundamentais da CIF mas não necessariamente reflete o consenso dos parceirosnacionais com respeito a segurança alimentar.
Para os países de Monitoreo Remoto, FEWS NET utiliza um contorno de cor no mapa CIF para representar a classificação mais alta da CIF nas áreas de preocupação.

CIF 2.0 Fase de Insegurança Alimentar Aguda Baseado

Países com presença:
1: Minima
2: Stress
3: Crise
4: Emergência
5: Fome
Países sem presença:
1: Minima
2: Stress
3+: Crise ou pior
Poderia ser pior sem a assistência
humanitária em vigor ou programad
Para os países de Monitoreo Remoto, FEWS NET utiliza um contorno de cor no mapa CIF para representar a classificação mais alta da CIF nas áreas de preocupação.

Summary

In October 2013, another livelihood zone revision workshop was held by the national HEA working group and attended by several civil society organizations (CSOs), the national early warning system (EWS), line ministry technical services, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and United Nations agencies. A first version of the revised map was produced, resulting in an increase in the number of zones from 13 to 19.

Finally, in December 2014, a validation workshop was held under FEWS NET's technical supervision after completion of a field mission. Participants at the workshop addressed several questions concerning the first version of the map published in October 2013. They validated the revised map, which had fewer livelihood zones than the first version. The total number of zones therefore rose from 13 to 17 rather than from 13 to 19.

This report, which summarizes the main characteristics of the map, describes four of the five new livelihood zones: ML 13 (Center-eastern Millet and Livestock), ML 14 (Lakes Recessional Millet and Sorghum), ML 15 (Western Groundnut, Sorghum, and Maize), and ML 16 (Southwestern Gold Mining and Maize). The existing livelihood profile document can be used for the old livelihood zones, which have remained unchanged.

ML13 - Center-eastern Millet and Livestock

The Center-eastern Millet and Livestock Zone covers the center of Koulikoro and Ségou and the eastern part of the region of Mopti. This zone is characterized by production deficits that barely cover six months of food needs in a normal year, with crops dominated by rain-fed millet and sorghum grown in depressions and the early season sorghum variety "Gadiaba." Dry-planting of millet is occurring more frequently, with little use of enhanced seeds and fertilizers. The presence of market gardening sites in ponds and wells throughout the zone depends on the amount of rainfall from June through September.

Livestock rearing is dominated by transhumant herds (cattle and small ruminants) and offers households a way to cover crop production deficits.

The main sources of income for poor households in the zone are livestock sales, migration, farm and non-farm labor, self-employment, and crop sales.

For these same poor households, in-kind payments are a significant source of food, with crop production making a small contribution to household food sources.

The main markets in the zone are those in Diéma, Nara, Koro, Douentza, Mondoro, Boni, Diancounté Camara, Didiéni, and Niono.

Hazards and risks in the zone are drought, crop pests, animal diseases, and floods.

ML14 - Lakes Recessional Millet and Sorghum

The Lakes Recessional Millet and Sorghum Zone is made up of Lake Horo (Tonka commune), Lake Télé (mainly the Goundam, Doukouria, Kaneye, and Télé communes and a small part of the Bintagoungou commune), *Lake Fathi (Goundam commune and Tindirma commune in the Diré cercle), Lake Faguibine (Raz el Ma, Bintagoungou, M'Bouna, Tin Aïcha, Essakane, and Issabery communes), Lake Gouber and Lake Kamango (Essakane) in the Goundam cercle, Lake Niangaye (Bambara-Maoundé commune and N'Gouma commune in the region of Mopti), *Lake Tanda (Dianké), *Lake Kabara (Soumpi), and *Lake Takadji (Soboundou) in the Niafunké cercle.

The zone's great production potential depends largely on the water level, which determines the performance of some lakes and the structures within them, which help to secure production. Crop planting (millet, sorghum, rice, legumes, maize, tubers, wheat) thanks to lake recessions in February-March and rainfall in June helps crops continue their development cycle, which is why they are called "long-cycle recessional" crops (six to nine months). Rice is harvested in August-September, while tubers and legumes are harvested in March. The zone suffers from crop production deficits, with production covering six to nine months of food needs in a normal year.

Livestock rearing is dominated by transhumant herds (cattle and small ruminants), constituting a secondary activity for households. The zone has a high concentration of livestock during the dry season.

The main sources of income for poor households in the zone are livestock sales, migration, farm and non-farm labor, self-employment, and crop sales.

The main markets in the zone are those in Tonka, Goundam, Bintagoungou, Soboundou, Soumpi, Dianké, and N’Gouma.

Hazards and risks in the zone are drought (low rainfall and low water levels in rivers), crop pests, animal diseases, floods, and civil insecurity.

ML15 - Western Groundnut, Sorghum, and Maize

The Western Groundnut, Sorghum, and Maize Zone covers the entire Bafoulabé cercle, except northern Diakon and eastern Dialan, the Kita cercle (Kokofata, Tambaga, Bougarybaya, Niatanso, Toukoto, Namala Guimba, Madina, Sud Dindanko, Sud Djougoun, Kourounikoto, and Sefeto Ouest), and the Kolokani cercle (Kolokani, Guihoyo, southern Didieni, northern Mansantola, and Sebekoro).

The main crops grown in the zone are sorghum, maize, groundnuts, cowpeas, and sesame. The zone is a supply basin for the entire region thanks to its surplus cereal production, with high production levels of cash crops such as groundnuts and cotton (with the support of the Compagnie malienne pour le développement des textiles, or CMDT). Rainfed sorghum and particularly maize require heavy use of fertilizers. The zone is also characterized by the presence of large market garden production areas in the off-season.

Livestock rearing is dominated by transhumant herds. The zone has a high concentration of livestock during the dry season, providing it with milk and meat.

The main sources of income for poor households in the zone are cash crop sales, livestock rearing, migration, gold mining, farm and non-farm labor, and self-employment.

The main markets in the zone are those in Kita, Krounikoto, Kokofata, Bafin Makana, Koumakiré, Sitanikoto, Oualia, Kolokani, Sebecoro 1, Massantola, Toukoto, Mahina, Oussoubidiania, and Goufan.

Hazards and risks in the zone are drought, crop pests (birds, caterpillars, etc.), the deterioration of road and trail conditions, the straying of animals, unstable groundnut and cotton prices, and animal diseases.

ML16 - Southwestern Gold Mining and Maize

The Southwestern Gold Mining and Maize Zone covers the Keniéba cercle, southern Dialafara, Sitakili, Keniéba, Dabia, and western Kassama. It has moderate to severe production deficits and is dominated by rainfed sorghum and maize crops. The zone faces a steady decrease in arable land with the development of gold mining activities. Farm labor is provided by able-bodied workers from neighboring zones and other regions of the country.

The zone is characterized by the rearing of cattle and small ruminants (sheep and goats), mainly for meat production.

Fishing is practiced as a subsistence activity, particularly by Bozos who come from other areas via the waterways that span the zone.

The main sources of income for poor households in the zone are gold mining, farm labor, and self-employment. The foods consumed there are maize, sorghum, millet, and cowpeas.

The main markets in the zone are those in Kéniéba, Guéniékoré, Kita, Faléa, Dialafara, Faraba, and Sagalo.

Hazards and risks in the zone are unstable gold prices, low water availability during the dry season, crop pests (birds, caterpillars, etc.), the deterioration in the condition of roads and trails, animal diseases, landslides in mines, and speculation of food prices.

A descrição das zonas das formas de vida acompanha um mapa da zona, contendo uma descrição breve das principais características dos padrões das formas de vida nessa zona. Os mapas e descrições, que identificam as variáveis relevantes pela geografia, são úteis para informar o desenvolvimento de sistemas de monitorização.

About FEWS NET

A Rede de Sistemas de AlertaPrecoce de Fome é líder na provisão de alertas precoces e análises relativas à insegurança alimentar. Estabelecida em 1985 com o fim de auxiliar os responsáveis pela tomada de decisões a elaborar planos para crises humanitárias, a FEWS NET provê análises baseadas em evidências em cerca de 35 países. Entre os membros implementadores refere-se a NASA , NOAA, USDA e o USGS, assim como a Chemonics International Inc. e a Kimetrica. Leia mais sobre o nosso trabalho.

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